[solved] Important Questions of Discoveries and Inventions for Exams

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Solved Discoveries and Inventions questions

1. Who invented optical fiber?

(a) Samuel Cohen
(b) Narinder Kapany
(c) Percy L. Spencer
(d) T. H. Maimah

Answer – (b) Narinder Kapany
An optical fiber (or optical fiber) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Narinder Singh Kapany is an Indian-born American physicist who invented optical fiber.

2. Who invented Radar?

(a) J. H. Van Tassel
(b) Wilhelm K. Roentgen
(c) P. T. Farnsworth
(d) A. H. Taylor and Leo C. Young

Answer – (d) A. H. Taylor and Leo C. Young
Radar is an object detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. In 1922 A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young, researchers working with the U.S. Navy invented Radar.

3. Who produced the first automobile?

(a) Gottleib Daimler
(b) Henry Ford
(c) Rudolf Diesel
(d) Karl Benz

Answer – (d) Karl Benz
An automobile, motor car, or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. The term motorcar has also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. In 1879, Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle.

4. Who was associated with the creation of Pentium Chip ?

(a) Arun Netravali
(b) Sabeer Bhatia
(c) C. Kumar Patel
(d) Vinod Dham

Answer – (d) Vinod Dham
Vinod Dham is an inventor, entrepreneur, and venture capitalist. He is popularly known as the Father of the Pentium chip, for his contribution to the development of highly successful Pentium Processors from Intel. He is a mentor, advisor, and investor; and sits on the boards of many companies including promising startups funded through his India-based fund – Indo US Venture Partners, where he is the founding Managing Director.

5. Who invented the video tape?

(a) Richard James
(b) Charles Ginsberg
(c) P. T. Farnsworth
(d) Georges de Mestral

Answer – (b) Charles Ginsberg
A videotape is a recording of images and sounds onto magnetic tape as opposed to film stock used in filmmaking or random access digital media. Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram. Charles P. Ginsburg invented the videotape. He worked for Ampex and was inspired by the reel-to-reel machines used for recording sound.

6. Who invented the laser?

(a) Sir Frank Whittle
(b) Fred Morrisson
(c) T. H. Maiman
(d) Dr. Charles H. Jones

Answer – (c) T. H. Maiman
A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. On May 16, 1960, Theodore H. Maiman operated the first functioning laser, at Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, California, ahead of several research teams, including those of Townes, at Columbia University, Arthur Schawlow, at Bell Labs, and Gould, at the TRG (Technical Research Group) company.

7. Which company invented the transistor radio?

(a) Sony
(b) Grundig
(c) Panasonic
(d) Telstra

Answer – (a) Sony
There are many claimants to the title of the first company to produce practical transistor radios, often it is attributed to Sony (originally Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation). A transistor radio is a small portable radio receiver that uses transistor-based circuitry. Following their development in 1954, they became the most popular electronic communication device in history, with billions manufactured during the 1960s and 1970s. Their pocket size sparked a change in popular music listening habits, allowing people to listen to music anywhere they went.

8. Who invented the polio vaccine (oral)?

(a) Jonas Salk
(b) Albert Sabin
(c) Burkholder
(d) Robert Koch

Answer – (b) Albert Sabin
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) was developed in 1961 by Albert Sabin. Also called “trivalent oral polio vaccine” or “Sabin vaccine”, OPV consists of a mixture of live, attenuated (weakened) poliovirus strains of all three poliovirus types. OPV produces antibodies in the blood to all three types of poliovirus. In the event of infection, these antibodies protect against paralysis by preventing the spread of wild poliovirus to the nervous system.

9. Who invented the “Voice Mail”?

(a) Gordon Matthews
(b) Alexander Graham Bell
(c) J. A. Fleming
(d) V. Poulsen

Answer – (a) Gordon Matthews
Voice mail (also known as voicemail, voice message, or voice bank) is a computer-based system that allows users and subscribers to exchange personal voice messages; to select and deliver voice information; and to process transactions relating to individuals, organizations, products, and services, using an ordinary telephone. Voicemail systems were developed in the late 70s by Voice Message Exchange (VMX). They became popular in the early 80s when they were made available on PC-based boards. Voice mail was the brainchild of Gordon Mathews, a successful entrepreneur who held 35 US and foreign patents at the time of his death on February 23, 2002.

10. Who is the father of the cellular phone?

(a) Linus Torvalds
(b) Percy Lebaron Spencer
(c) Fred Morrison
(d) Martin Cooper

Answer – (d) Martin Cooper
Martin Cooper (born December 26, 1928 in Chicago, Illinois, USA) is an American former Motorola vice president and division manager who in the 1970s led the team that developed the handheld mobile phone (as distinct from the car phone). Cooper was also the CEO and founder of ArrayComm, a company that works on smart antenna technology and wireless networks, and was the corporate director of Research and Development for Motorola. In 1973, when Motorola installed a base station to handle the first public demonstration of a phone call over the cellular network, the company was trying to persuade the Federal Communications Commission to allocate frequency space to private companies for use in the emerging technology of cellular communications. After some initial testing in Washington for the F.C.C., John F. Mitchell and his team, which included Martin Cooper, took the cellular phone technology to New York to demonstrate it to reporters and the public.

11. Which among the following events occurred first?

(a) John Logy Baird demonstrated the first television
(b) Alexander Flemming discovered pencillin
(c) Telecast of talking pictures on television by BBC
(d) Jonas E. Salk developed the first polio vaccine

Answer – (a) John Logy Baird demonstrated the first television
John Logy Baird demonstrated the first television on 26 January 1926, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, Telecast of talking pictures on television by BBC took place on 2 July 1967, Jonas E. Salk developed the first polio vaccine in 1952. John Logie Baird was born on 14 August 1888 in Helensburgh on the west coast of Scotland, the son of a clergyman. In 1929, the German post office gave him the facilities to develop an experimental television service based on his mechanical system, the only one operable at the time. Sound and vision were initially sent alternately and only began to be transmitted simultaneously from 1930.

12. Who is known as ‘the father of Geometry’?

(a) Pythagoras
(b) Euclid
(c) Aristotle
(d) Kepler

Answer – (b) Euclid
Euclid, also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the “Father of Geometry”. He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). Euclid deduced the principles of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory, and rigor. Although many of the results in Elements originated with earlier mathematicians, one of Euclid’s accomplishments was to present them in a single, logically coherent framework, making it easy to use and easy to reference, including a system of rigorous mathematical proofs that remains the basis of mathematics 23 centuries later.

13. What is the name given to the outermost “planetoid” discovered recently in the Solar system?

(a) Quark
(b) Xenon
(c) Sedna
(d) Asterix

Answer – (c) Sedna
Astronomers have discovered a new planetoid at the far edge of our Solar System. The new object, named Sedna, is probably almost as big as the smallest planet, Pluto. Sedna is very, very far away. It is more than twice as far from the Sun as Pluto, and about 90 times as far from the Sun as Earth. Sedna is probably a huge ball of ice. The ice is reddish in color. There are probably chemicals in the ice that make it red. Sedna orbits the Sun once every 10,500 years. Its orbit takes it out to about 900 times as far from the Sun as the Earth.

14. Who introduced the use of artificial heart for surgery?

(a) Christian Barnard
(b) Michael DeBakey
(c) Walton Lillehei
(d) Denton Cooly

Answer – (a) Christian Barnard
Christian Neethling Barnard was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world’s first successful human-to-human heart transplant. Following the first successful kidney transplant in 1953, in the United States, Barnard performed the first kidney transplant in South Africa in October 1967. Barnard experimented for several years with animal heart transplants. More than 50 dogs received transplanted hearts. He performed the world’s first human heart transplant operation on 3 December 1967, in an operation assisted by his brother, Marius Barnard; the operation lasted nine hours and used a team of thirty people.

15. Who invented Radar?

(a) J. H. Van Tassel
(b) Wilhelm K. Roentgen
(c) P. T. Farnsworth
(d) A. H. Taylor & Leo C. young

Answer – (d) A. H. Taylor & Leo C. young
Radar is an object detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. In 1922 A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young, researchers working with the U.S. Navy invented Radar. 

16. Who built the first modern motorcar?

(a) Henry Ford
(b) Karl Benz
(c) Daimler
(d) Henry Austin

Answer – (b) Karl Benz
An automobile is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. The term motorcar has also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.

17. Who developed the first automatic automobile?

(a) Goatleab Daimler
(b) Henry Ford
(c) Rudolf Diesel
(d) Karl Benz

Answer – (b) Henry Ford
The invention of the first automatic car is more evolutionary than the result of a single invention. Frenchmen Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor are recognized for inventing the modern transmission in 1894, but it was Thomas J. Sturtevant of Boston, Mass., who designed the first automatic transmission in 1904. In 1938, General Motors developed the first line of cars to sport automatic transmission — Oldsmobiles that offered “Hydra-Matic drive.” The cars were introduced to the public in 1940. In 1941, Chrysler followed suit and introduced three different cars that offered their version of automatic drive, “Vacamatic” (later called “Fluid Drive”). Automatic transmission was a fairly common option on most American cars by 1948. Ford-O-Matic was the first automatic transmission widely used by Ford Motor Company.

18. Electron was discovered by-

(a) Ernest Rutherford
(b) Max Planck
(c) Joseph Thomson
(d) Albert Einstein

Answer – (c) Joseph Thomson
The electron is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge. An electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. The intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of the electron is a half-integer value in units of h, which means that it is a fermion. Like all matter, they have quantum mechanical properties of both particles and waves, so they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. The electron was identified as a particle in 1897 by J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists.

19. The first thermionic valve was invented by-

(a) Thomas Edison
(b) Richardson
(c) J. A. Fleming
(d) Lee De Forest

Answer – (c) J. A. Fleming
In electronics, a vacuum tube, thermionic valve, tube, or valve is a device controlling electric current through a vacuum in a sealed container. The container is often thin transparent glass in a roughly cylindrical shape. Sir John Ambrose Fleming (29 November 1849– 18 April 1945) was an English electrical engineer and physicist. He is known for inventing the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, the diode, then called the kenotron in 1904. He is also famous for the left-hand rule (for electric motors).

20. Gunpowder was invented by-

(a) Roger Bacon
(b) Colt
(c) C. V. Raman
(d) Dr. Gatting

Answer – (a) Roger Bacon
Gunpowder was the first chemical explosive and the only one known until the invention of nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, smokeless powder, and TNT in the second half of the 19th century. Prior to the invention of gunpowder, many incendiary and burning devices had been used, including Greek fire. Roger Bacon invented gunpowder.

21. For which invention is Otto Hahn famous?

(a) Atom bomb
(b) television
(c) X-rays
(d) Miner’s safety lamp

Answer – (a) Atom bomb
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as “the father of nuclear chemistry”. Hahn was a courageous opponent of Jewish persecution by the Nazi Party and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner against the use of nuclear energy as a weapon. He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG) in 1946 and as the founding President of the Max Planck Society (MPG) from 1948 to 1960. He is famous for the invention of the atomic bomb.

22. Leprosy bacillus was invented by-

(a) Koch
(b) Hansen
(c) Fleming
(d) Harvey

Answer – (a) Koch
Mycobacteriumleprae, the causative agent of leprosy, was discovered by G. H. Armauer Hansen in Norway in 1873. Hansen observed a number of non-refractile small rods in unstained tissue sections. The rods were not soluble in potassium lye, and they were acid- and alcohol-fast. In 1879, he was able to stain these organisms with Ziehl’s method and the similarities with Koch’s bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) were noted.

23. X-rays were discovered by-

(a) Becquerel
(b) Roentgen
(c) Marie Curie
(d) Van Lue

Answer – (b) Roentgen
X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays and longer than gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is called Röntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Röntgen, who is usually credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation.

24. Who discovered cement?

(a) Agassit
(b) Albertus Magnus
(c) Joseph Aspdin
(d) Janseen 

Answer – (c) Joseph Aspdin
Cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word “cement” traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. Joseph Aspdin was a British cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824.

25. Who discovered the North pole?

(a) Amundson
(b) Robert Peary
(c) John Cabot
(d) Captain cook

Answer – (b) Robert Peary
The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. It defines geodetic latitude 90° North as well as the direction of true north. At the North Pole all directions point south; all lines of longitude converge there, so its longitude can be defined as any degree value. Robert Edwin Peary was an American explorer who claimed to have led the first expedition, on April 6, 1909, to reach the geographic North Pole.

26. Bacteria was first discovered by-

(a) A. V. Leeuwenhoek
(b) Robert Hooke
(c) Robert Koch 
(d) Louis Pasteur

Answer – (a) A. V. Leeuwenhoek
Van Leeuwenhoek discovered “protozoa” – the single-celled organisms and he called them “animalcules”. He also improved the microscope and laid the foundation for microbiology. He is often cited as the first microbiologist to study muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa, and blood flow in capillaries. Although he did not have much education or scientific background, yet he defied all odds to be reckoned as a great scientist through his skillful observations, insight, and unmatched curiosity. He revolutionized biological science by exposing microscopic life to the world.

27. Electron microscope was discovered by-

(a) Grahn and Short
(b) Knoll and Rusk
(c) Farmer and Moore
(d) Janssen and Janssen

Answer – (b) Knoll and Rusk
The electron microscope was invented by Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska in 1931 (Germany). An electron microscope uses condensing lenses to focus a beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen and produce a magnified image. An electron microscope (EM) has greater resolving power than a light-powered optical microscope because electrons have wavelengths about 100,000 times shorter than visible light photons. The electron microscope uses electrostatic and electromagnetic “lenses” to control the electron beam and focus it to form an image. These lenses are analogous to but different from the glass lenses of an optical microscope that forms a magnified image by focusing light on or through the specimen.

28. Who invented Penicillin?

(a) Alexander Fleming
(b) Louis Pasteur
(c) Dreser
(d) Edward Jenner

Answer – (a) Alexander Fleming
The discovery of penicillin is attributed to Scottish scientist and Nobel laureate Alexander Fleming in 1928. Penicillin is a secondary metabolite of certain species of Penicillium and is produced when the growth of the fungus is inhibited by stress. It is not produced during active growth.

29. Who invented vaccination for “Small Pox’?

(a) Sir Fredrick Grant Banting
(b) Sir Alexander Fleming
(c) Edward Jenner
(d) Louis Pasteur

Answer – (c) Edward Jenner
The smallpox vaccine was the first successful vaccine to be developed. The process of vaccination was first publicized by Edward Jenner in 1796, who acted upon his observation that milkmaids who caught the cowpox virus did not catch smallpox. Before the introduction of a vaccine, the mortality of the severe form of smallpox—variola major—was very high. Historical records show that a method of inducing immunity was already known. A process called inoculation, also known as insufflation or variolation was practiced in India as early as 1000 BC.

30. Who invented the Jet Engine?

(a) Karl Benz
(b) Sir Frank Whittle
(c) Thomas Savery
(d) Michael Faraday

Answer – (b) Sir Frank Whittle
Dr. Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle are both recognized as being the co-inventors of the jet engine. Each worked separately and knew nothing of the other’s work. Hans von Ohain is considered the designer of the first operational turbojet engine. Frank Whittle was the first to register a patent for the turbojet engine in 1930. Hans von Ohain was granted a patent for his turbojet engine in 1936. However, Hans von Ohain’s jet was the first to fly in 1939. Frank Whittle’s jet first flew in 1941.

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